terça-feira, 17 de janeiro de 2012

The course of ceramics from the XVI century to the present
The collections of the Museum consist of a representative group of Portuguese and foreign ceramic centers, from the 16th century to the present. Local production predominates in the pottery forms and artistic production of the 19th century, with authors such as Manuel Mafra, who introduced the naturalistic style of Bernard Palissy, up to the contemporary creations of some of Caldas ceramists, such as Ferreira da Silva or Eduardo Constantino.
The remarkable evolution of Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro’s work that was carried out at the Fábrica de Faianças de Caldas da Rainha, as well as the Art Noveau production made by Costa Motta Sobrinho is worth mentioning. Many tiles can be seen, as well as miniature work made by Francisco Elias. The manor house and its gardens of romantic lines, decorated with tiles and ceramic elements, are equally deserving of a detailed visit.

Viscount of Sacavém
The Viscount’s old dining room is decorated with Dutch tile panels from the 17th and 18th century. Here you can find a resume of the several Portuguese and foreign ceramic centers. You will find samples from Viana do Castelo, Miragaia, Coimbra, Lisboa, Juncal and Estremoz that are of Portuguese production; of foreign production you will find samples from France, England, Italy, Spain and China. Standing out in this room, among other important pieces is Clodion’s (1738-1814) “Mythological Group", and an Italian majolica bowl from the 16th century. A "Bust of a Child", that portraits the 3rd Viscount, José Manuel Pinto Sacavém (1894-1973) was made by the Austrian sculptor, Joseph Füller (1861-1927) that worked at the Ceramic Workshop on these grounds.
Bust of the 3rd Viscount of Sacavém | Joseph Füller | Atelier Cerâmico (1892–1896) | MC 675

Earthenware from the Real Fábrica do Rato
This room is decorated with ashlars of Portuguese tiles from the end of the 19th century. In the lining of the fireplace are Dutch tiles from the 17th and 18th century.
In this space is presented earthenware from the first years of production of the Real Fábrica de Louça do Rato (in Lisbon), which was considered its best period. This earthenware reveals the oriental and European (France, England, Holland and Italy) influences. By this time, a great number of pieces were authenticated with a trademark or the manufacturer's name.
At this time the ceramic industry was activated by Marquês de Pombal’s reformation. Marquês de Pombal was the Prime Minister to King D. José. He supported and created new industries, amongst which was the
Real Fábrica de Louça do Rato in 1767, in Lisbon. From this manufacturing center came the guideline that has transformed and defined the 18th and 19th century ceramics. Many factories that opened throughout the country were directed by professionals that were trained at the Fábrica do Rato, though assuming the characteristics of regions, such as Coimbra, Juncal, Porto, Viana and others.
Flower vase | Real Fábrica do Rato | Deposited by Caldas da Rainha Town Hall

The ceramic tradition of Caldas da Rainha is shown in the old kitchen of the manor house. Pottery probably goes back to the Neolithic period, but it is only documented from 1488, after the foundation of the Thermal Hospital which led to the creation of the villa, Caldas da Rainha. The presence of potters in the villa is proven by documents, revealing a significant ceramic activity in the 16th and 17th century, which continued to the present.
In this room is pottery from the region of Caldas, from the 16th and 20th century, which standout with the characteristic of bottle green and honey brown glaze.
Vessel with snakes | attributed to Adelino Soares Oliveira | MC 2042

Ceramic Art of Caldas
In the 19th
century, the ceramic activity assumed particular characteristics in Caldas da Rainha with productions of the ceramist Maria dos Cacos, author of utilitarian anthropomorphic objects, and Manuel Mafra, a ceramist that was protected by King Consort D. Fernando of Saxe Coburg.
Manuel Mafra’s production evolved to more elaborate models, inspired on the naturalistic production of the French schools of Paris and Avisseau, successors to the French ceramic style of Renascence, Bernard Palissy, whom Manuel Mafra knew through the Dom Fernando’s collection. He stood out by making pieces that were decorated with motifs from nature - reptiles, fish, fruits and leaves - on moss or sanded backgrounds. These go beyond the shapes of traditional pottery and become a source of inspiration for the development of Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro’s work.
Tea set. Snakes | Francisco Gomes de Avelar| 19th century| MC 314 a 318

The Fábrica de Faianças das Caldas da Rainha
Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro
The creation, in 1884, of the Fábrica de Faianças de Caldas da Rainha, directed by Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (1846-1905), with modern machinery and training of workers, culminated in a strong local pottery tradition. Bordalo Pinheiro was a cartoonist and illustrator, having dedicated himself to ceramics at the age of 38, when he took over the artistic direction of the Fábrica de Faianças das Caldas da Rainha.
He carried out an extensive and creative ceramic work in naturalistic, historical and Art Nouveau style. He also cultivated irony and humour through ceramics, having satirized characters, as well as portuguese political and social situations. He was very successful nationally and internationally, having participated in the 1889 Paris International Exhibition. In spite of the artistic quality, the Fábrica de Faianças faced financial problems and went bankrupt in 1906, the year after Bordalo Pinheiro died, thus being sold in public auction. The new administration handed the artistic direction over to the sculptor Costa Motta Sobrinho who, between 1908 and 1916, had a remarkable ceramic work mainly characterized by more conventional forms, less ornamented with uniform metal glazes.
Figure in motion: Zé Povinho| Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro| 1895| MC 232

Manuel Gustavo Bordalo Pinheiro
Manuel Gustavo Bordalo Pinheiro (1867-1920) was the main collaborator and follower of his father, Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro. He kept the naturalistic style of traditional ceramics, but presented models with modern and simple lines, mainly Art Nouveau. After Bordalo Pinheiro’s death, Manuel Gustavo, with the support of some of his workers, on November 5, 1908, founded the new factory named Fábrica Bordalo Pinheiro, continuing his father's work.
Milagre das Bilhas | Manuel Gustavo Bordalo Pinheiro | 1912 | MC 7

Atelier Cerâmico
Founded by the 2nd Viscount of Sacavém, José Joaquim Pinto da Silva (1863-1928), the Atelier Cerâmico was a small workshop that worked within the space of the Quinta Visconde de Sacavém – presently the Museu da Cerâmica – where, along with artwork, architectural elements that decorate the facades of the manor house were made. The artistic director was the Austrian Joseph Füller (1861-1927) who had ceramists such as Avelino Belo, a disciple of Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, collaborating with him.
This workshop only worked from 1892 to 1896, at which time it was closed, having been transferred to the Rua do Sacramento à Lapa, in Lisbon, to make decorative ceramics for the Viscount's palace in the capital.
Suspension: Guitar | Atelier Cerâmico | 1892–1896 | MC 453

Costa Motta Sobrinho
Between 1908 and 1912 the Fábrica de Faianças das Caldas da Rainha was directed by the sculptor Costa Motta Sobrinho (1877-1956).
Costa Motta Sobrinho was a pioneer in innovation of Portuguese decorative ceramic design and was a representative of Art Nouveau in our country. He reused Caldas ceramics, placing it next to the most modern European production.
Costa Motta Sobrinho’s ceramic work revealed originality and innovated skilled taste, not only in technical quality, which transmitted the production process, but also with the decorative models and shapes that followed the international artistic circuit.
Within his work are pieces that are very close to the naturalistic tradition of the 1800's. The decorated pieces are frequently made with somber and elegant forms. They are well integrated and harmonious, sometimes very discrete and very modern.
Vessel | Costa Motta Sobrinho | 1912 | MC 1046

Clay Miniatures
The miniatures shown here, real works of art in reduced size, are made by Francisco Elias (1869-1947), disciple of Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, at the Fábrica de Faianças das Caldas da Rainha, and by José da Silva Pedro (1907-1981), an artisan from Maceira-Liz, Leiria, who also dedicated himself to this kind of clay.
Os Bêbados. Miniature. Reproduction of Malhoa’s painting | Francisco Elias | 1922 | MC 614

Contemporary Ceramics
This space holds contemporary ceramics that were produced from the 1950’s to the present.
In the first room, you will find ceramics from the Secla factory. This factory was created in 1947, in Caldas da Rainha, to respond to the growing number of orders and to the external market growth, which marked the period after the II World War. This factory began a policy that approached devoted artists of national or foreign origin, which included models made by Hansi Stäel, António Quadros, Júlio Pomar, Ferreira da Silva, Herculano Elias, amongst others. These models, made in small numbers and sold as unique pieces or as industrialized work, developed a new style to the current production of utilitarian ware.
Shown here are new pieces that illuminated the route to the ceramic world of the 20th century, covering both the industrial side as well as pieces of design and by author from main manufacturing centers worldwide, honouring and remembering the generosity of its donor, Francisco Coutinho Carreira, born in Alvorninha, Caldas da Rainha. He wanted to share with the Museum and his country, the valuable art objects that he lovingly and carefully collected throughout his life.
You can see pieces from Germany, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, England, France, Holland, Finland, United Stated, Canada and Japan. The relevance of this collection as a historical, artistic and social witness of the most significant ceramics produced at the end of the 19th and 20th century, as well as being the only collection in the country, makes the Museu da Cerâmica a national and international reference.
Also in this room you will see pieces made by contemporary authors, such as Eduardo Constantino, Ferreira da Silva, Francis Behets, Armando Correia, Bela Silva, Ilda Bragança and Emídio Galassi. Tile panels made by Manuel Cargaleiro are also shown here.
Vase| POOLE (England) | 20th century | MC 3334